Glossary | Northern Media


Above the line
Advertising placed, from which a payment is made and where commission is usually paid to an advertising agency. See also ‘Below the line’ advertising.

Account Management
Where an agency or supplier manages the needs of a client

Ad view
A Web page with an online ad. Once a user has viewed the ad, he or she can click on it (ad click). There may be more than one ad on an "ad view". However, ad view (also known as impressions) can represent the number of times an ad banner is downloaded (and presumably seen) by users

Ad click
A click on an online ad, it takes a user to another Web site. If you see the term "ad clicks" it refers to the number of times a user clicks on an online ad.

Adopter categories
Five different categories which consumers can be places into, defining the time it takes them to adopt a new product or service:
• Innovators – Those who are first to adopt a new product or service.
• Early adopters – Those who adopt a new product or service after the innovators have already adopted it.
• Early majority – Those who adopt just before the ‘average’ person.
• Late majority – Those who eventually adopt through economic necessity or social pressure.
• Laggards - Those who are last to adopt a new product or service.

Promotion of a product, service, message or information by a specific sponsor using either aid-for media or unpaid media.

Advertising Value Equivalent (AVE)
A commonly used PR measurement of the value of the space secured by PR executives had they bought that equivalent amount of space in advertising.

An advertisement which is designed to have the appearance of an editorial. Advertorials are normally labeled as "Advertising" or "This is an advertisement". Similar in practice to an infomercial.

Advocacy advertising
Advocacy advertising expresses a viewpoint on a given issue, often on behalf of an institution. Examples are to be found in anti-drink-driving campaigns.

Affiliate marketing
A form of marketing or advertising used on the internet. Companies that sell products or services online link to relevant sites. The advertising on the other or ’affiliate’ sites is paid for according to results.

Affinity marketing
Marketing targeted at individuals sharing common interests that predispose them towards a product, e.g. an auto accessories manufacturer targeting motoring magazine readers. Also, a campaign jointly sponsored by a number of disparate organisations that are non-competitive but have a particular interest in common.

Attention, Interest, Desire, Action: a model describing the process that advertising or promotion is intended to initiate in the mind of a prospective customer.

Awareness, Interest, Understanding, Attitudes, Purchase, Repeat purchase: a buying decision model.

The set of ‘rules’ a search engine may use to determine the relevance of a web page (and therefore ranking) in its organic search results

Alt Text
The text you sometimes see before an image appears on a Web page (or before an image is fully loaded). With some Web browsers, it is the text that appears when you put your mouse on top of an image or a picture. Basically, it is a word or phrase in the HTML code that describes the image

Alt Tags
An HTML tag that provides alternative text when Web pages are displayed without images. This text is helpful for the visually impaired or those who choose not to download images on Web pages in order to increase their surfing speed. With some browsers, this text appears when you put your mouse over an image and leave it there. It is not necessary for Web designers to put any text there, but if they include terms specific to the Web site, some of the search engines may list the site higher in their results.

Ambient media
Originally known as ’fringe media’, ambient media are communications platforms that surround us in everyday life - from petrol pump advertising to advertising projected onto buildings to advertising on theatre tickets, cricket pitches or even pay slips.
Also see ’Buzz’.

Ambush marketing
A deliberate attempt by an organisation to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without incurring the costs of sponsorship. For example by advertising during broadcasts of the event.
Also see ’Buzz’.

Animated Giff
A type of GIF format that allows a series of static images to be displayed one after another or on top of each other, giving the effect of motion or animation

Ansoff matrix
Category management tool which relates market position to market strategy. It maps new versus existing products along one axis, and new versus existing markets along the other. Each quadrant of the matrix relates to a product-market strategy:
• Market penetration – existing product/service and an existing market
• Product development – new product/service and an existing market
• Market development – existing product/service and a new market
• Diversification – new product/service and a new market

Asset led marketing
Asset led marketing uses product strengths such as the name and brand image to market both new and existing products. Marketing decisions are based on the needs of the consumer AND the assets of the product.


The unethical or illegal practice of influencing or distorting word of mouth communication for commercial gain by posing as something or someone that you are not.

A link from someone else’s Web site to your site.

Banner adverts
Adverts on web pages used to build brand awareness or drive traffic to the advertisers own website.

Behavioural targeting
An internet marketing term. Technology that targets users with advertisements based on previous browsing behaviour and patterns.

Below the line
Non-media advertising or promotion when no commission has been paid to the advertising agency. Includes direct mail, point of sale displays, giveaways.
Also see ’Above the line’ and ’Push versus pull promotion’.

A preliminary or testing stage of a commercial software or hardware product. Someone may say, "It’s still in the beta version." Software developers encourage users to report bugs while they "beta test" a program.

Buy it – Don’t Do It Yourself – a demographic grouping

Blog is a contraction of Web log. An internet publishing device allowing an individual or company to express their thoughts and opinions. Businesses can use blogs as a marketing communication channel.

Buy One Get One Free. Promotional practice where on the purchase of one item another one is given free.

Buy One Get One Free Later. Promotional practice where on the purchase of one item the customer is entitled to another one for free at a later date.
Also referred to as BNFNT (Buy Now Free Next Time).

Boston matrix
A product portfolio evaluation tool developed by the Boston Consulting Group. The matrix categorises products into one of four classifications based on market growth and market share. The four classifications are:
• Cash cow – low growth, high market share
• Star – high growth, high market share
• Problem child – high growth, low market share
• Dog – low growth, low market share

The set of physical attributes of a product or service, together with the beliefs and expectations surrounding it - a unique combination which the name or logo of the product or service should evoke in the mind of the audience.

Brand extension
Process by which a company develops new products to be marketed under an existing brand name.

Brand management
The process by which marketers attempt to optimise the ’Marketing mix’ for a specific brand.

Brand mapping and brand maps
Mapping the relative position of competing brands based on perceptual mapping of consumer perceptions of the brands.
Also called perceptual maps, position maps and space maps.

Brand personality
Collection of attributes giving a brand a recognisable unique quality. May be the result of contrived marketing action or an accident of market perception.

Brand value
The value which a brand would be given if represented on a company balance sheet.

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Black Urban Professional - a demographic grouping.

Business plan
A strategic document showing cash flow, forecasts and direction of a company.

Business strategy
The means by which a business works towards achieving its stated aims.

Business to Business (B2B)
Relating to the sale of a product or service for any use other than personal consumption. The buyer may be a manufacturer, a reseller, a government body, a non-profit-making institution, or any organisation other than an ultimate consumer.

Sales of products or services to government or other public sector organisations may be excluded from B2B and instead be classified as B2G.

See ‘Business to Government’.

Business to Consumer (B2C)
Relating to the sale of products or services for personal consumption. The buyer may be an individual, family or other group, buying to use the product themselves, or for end use by another individual.

Buying behaviour
The process that buyers go through when deciding whether or not to purchase goods or services. Buying behaviour can be influenced by a variety of external factors and motivations, including marketing activity.

Buzz marketing uses ’word-of-mouth’ advertising: potential customers pass round information about a product.
See ’Viral marketing’

Cache Memory
Used to store web pages you have seen already. When you go back to those pages they’ll load more quickly because they come from the cache and don’t need to be downloaded over the internet again

Call to Action (CTA)
A statement or instruction, typically promoted in print, web, TV, radio, on-portal, or other forms of media (often embedded in advertising), that explains to a mobile subscriber how to respond to an opt-in for a particular promotion or mobile initiative, which is typically followed by a Notice (see Notice).

Cash cow
See ‘Boston matrix’.

Chartered Marketer
A marketing professional who has achieved ’individual Chartered Status’ awarded by The Chartered Institute of Marketing.

The act of a user clicking on an internet advertisement that opens a link to the advertiser’s website.

Click-through rate (CTR)
Frequency of Click-throughs as a percentage of impressions served. Used as a measure of advertising effectiveness.

Click to Call
A service that enables a mobile subscriber to initiate a voice call to a specified phone number by clicking on a link on a mobile internet site. Typically used to enhance and provide a direct response mechanism in an advertisement.

Cold calling
Telephoning or calling at the door of people or organisations who have not asked for information on, or expressed an interest in, your products or services.

Cold mailing
Using a rented or compiled list to mail or email people or organisations who have not asked for information about your products or services.

omparative advertising
Advertising which compares a company’s product with that of competing brands. Must be used with caution to avoid accusations of misrepresentation from competitors.

Competitive advantage
The product, proposition or benefit that puts a company ahead of its competitors.

Companies that sell products or services in the same market place as one another.

Concept boards
Visual and/or verbal stimulus presenting an idea for a product, service or advert.

Confusion marketing
Controversial strategy of deliberately confusing the customer. Examples are alleged to be found in the telecommunications market, where pricing plans can be so complicated that it becomes impossible to make direct comparisons between competing offers.

Individual who buys and uses a product or service.

Consumer behaviour
The buying habits and patterns of consumers in the acquisition and usage of goods and services.

A somewhat bland name for the creative contribution of the writers, artists, animators, and musicians whose work makes up the text, artwork, animation, and music on the Net. Usually thought of as simply the textual and graphical information contained in a Web site, content also refers to the structure and design in which the information is presented.

Content Marketing
Content marketing is an umbrella term encompassing all marketing formats that involve the creation or sharing of content for the purpose of engaging current and potential customers. In contrast to traditional marketing methods that aim to increase sales or awareness through interruption techniques, content marketing subscribes to the notion that delivering high-quality, relevant and valuable information to prospects and customers drives profitable consumer action. Content marketing has shown benefits in terms of retaining reader attention and improving brand loyalty better than traditional marketing techniques.
Content marketing products frequently take the form of custom magazines, print or online newsletters, digital content, websites or microsites, white papers, webcasts/webinars, podcasts, video portals or series, in-person roadshows, roundtables, interactive online, email, events. Content marketing is the underlying philosophy driving techniques such as custom media, custom publishing, database marketing, brand marketing, branded entertainment and branded content.

Contextual marketing
An internet marketing term. In its simplest form contextual marketing shows a user adverts based on terms for which they have searched. More advanced applications pull adverts based on the content of a website being viewed, or on an individual’s browsing habits.

Conversion rate
Measure of conversion of inquiries or replies to an advertisement, or mailing shot, to sales.

Small data file downloaded on to an end-user’s computer which allows a web site to identify the visitor. Cookies can be used to build profiles of repeat users of a website.

The law that protects an author’s original material, usually (in the UK) for 70 years after the author’s death. Similar law covers logos and brand names.

Creative process by which written content is prepared for advertisements or marketing material.

Corporate identity
The character a company seeks to establish for itself in the mind of the public, reinforced by consistent use of logos, colours, typefaces and so on.
Also see ’Corporate reputation’.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
A commitment by business to behave in an ethical, social and environmentally responsible way, and to have a positive impact on the local and global environment.

Cost leadership
The strategy of producing goods at a lower cost than one’s competitors.

Cost Per Acquisition/Action (CPA)
Online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying actions such as sales or registrations.

Cost Per Click (CPC)
A specific type of cost-per-action program where advertisers pay for each time a user clicks on an ad or link.

Cost Per thousand (CPT)
This is a standard measurement used for determining the cost effectiveness for a specific medium. It compares the cost of the advertisement to the number of impressions to your target audience.

Cost Per Sale

Crawlers / Crawling
In search engine technology, crawling refers to finding new online resources, such as new Web pages. Crawlers find these resources in a number of ways including collection frequency, which refers to the number of documents a term appears in compared to total number of documents; and term frequency, which is the number of occurrences of the search term in a document.

A person or company who purchases goods or services (not necessarily the end consumer).

Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)
The profitability of customers during the lifetime of the relationship, as opposed to profitability on one transaction.

Customer loyalty
Feelings or attitudes that incline a customer either to return to a company, shop or outlet to purchase there again, or else to re-purchase a particular product, service or brand.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
The coherent management of contacts and interactions with customers.

Customer satisfaction
The provision of goods or services which fulfil the customer’s expectations in terms of quality and service, in relation to price paid.

Database marketing
Whereby customer information, stored in an electronic database, is utilised for targeting marketing activities. Information can be a mixture of what is gleaned from previous interactions with the customer and what is available from outside sources.
Also see ’Customer Relationship Management (CRM)’.

Deep linking
Hyperlinking to a page, file or image on a website that bypasses that website’s homepage.
See ’Shallow linking’.

Demographic data
Information describing and segmenting a population in terms of age, sex, income and so on, which can be used to target marketing campaigns.

Ensuring that products and services have a unique element to allow them to stand out from the rest.

Double Income No Kids Yet - a demographic grouping.

Direct mail
Delivery of an advertising or promotional message to customers or potential customers by mail.

Direct marketing
All activities which make it possible to offer goods or services or to transmit other messages to a segment of the population by post, telephone, e-mail or other direct means.

Direct Response Advertising (DRA)
Advertising incorporating a contact method such as a phone number, address and enquiry form, web site identifier or e-mail address, with the intention of encouraging the recipient to respond directly to the advertiser by requesting more information, placing an order and so on.

Displacement marketing
The practice of a brand marketing a product to draw attention to another product with the same brand name, usually because the second product is banned from being advertised. An example would be a brewer marketing a non-alcoholic drink with the same brand name and logo as an alcoholic drink in order to draw attention to the alcoholic product.

An increase in the variety of goods and services produced by an individual enterprise or conglomerate. It may be encouraged, either by business owners or by governments, in order to reduce the risk of relying on a narrow range of products.

A product with a low market share of a declining market.

Domain Name
The unique name of an internet site

The technology that allows users to store video content on their computer for viewing at a later date. Downloading an entire piece of media makes it more susceptible to illegal duplication.

dots per inch
A metric used to measure print and screen resolution.

DRIP (Marketing Model)
Differentiate - Reinforce - Inform - Persuade.

An electronic version of a greeting card, it is a message sent to your e-mail address, usually by a friend or family member. In most cases, you must visit a Web site in order to see it.

E-commerce (Electronic commerce)
Any business transaction that takes place via electronic platforms.

E-mail Marketing
Marketing using email

Marketing using electronic media such as the internet, mobile phones or email.

Emotional Selling Preposition (ESP)
The unique associations established by consumers with particular products. For example, the emotional response to certain car marques ensures their continual success, even though other makers may offer superior performance at the same price.

Emotional Selling Proposition (ESP)
An emotional or psychological characteristic of a brand which makes it more desirable to the consumer. Based on the assumption that many buying decisions are not made on a purely rational basis, a brand with an ESP will have more appeal to a consumer than if it just relied on a rational selling proposition.
See ‘Unique Selling Preposition (USP)’.

Ethical marketing
Marketing that takes account of the moral aspects of decisions.

Export marketing
The marketing of goods or services to overseas customers.

Facebook is a website (referred to as a "social utility") that connects people with friends and others who work, study, and live around them. People use Facebook to keep up with friends, upload an unlimited number of photos, share links and videos, and learn more about the people they meet. It is considered a social networking site because people it contains profiles, semi-persistent public commentary on the profile, and a traversable publicly articulated social network displayed in relation to the profile (which basically means you can view information about a person, make comments to them, and see who their friends are).

Field marketing
The practice of sending representatives or agents to retail outlets with a view to building brand and supporting sales. They may for example conduct in-store promotions, set up point of sale displays, and ensure that products are displayed to best advantage.

A vector graphic animation technology that’s bandwidth friendly and browser-independent. In other words, it is a programming technique that enables movies and animation to move seamlessly across a Web browser

Flat File
A vector graphic animation technology that’s bandwidth friendly and browser-independent. In other words, it is a programming technique that enables movies and animation to move seamlessly across a Web browser

Fast Moving Consumer Goods - such as packaged food, beverages, toiletries, and tobacco.

Calculation of future events and performance.

The selling of a licence by the owner (franchisor) to a third party (franchisee) permitting the sale of a product or service for a specified period. In business format franchising the agreement will involve a common brand and marketing format.

Front Page
A software program developed by Microsoft for Web site creation and management. It gives you everything you need to create and manage a Web site.
FrontPage extensions are server-side applications that allow users to publish directly to their Web server from a PC. Users can publish from anywhere in the world, via the Net

Full service agency
Advertising agency offering clients a wide range of activities and expertise over and above the normal creative and/or media facilities. Such services will include marketing research and planning, merchandising and below-the-line sales promotions, press and/or public relations, packaging, etc.

A method of analysis combining geographic and demographic variables.
For an example see ’ACORN’.

Greying, Leisured, Affluent, Middle-aged - a demographic grouping.

Founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two Stanford Ph.D. candidates who developed a technologically advanced method for finding information on the Internet, its most famous product is a hybrid search engine that ranks the popularity of results that match your keyword search. It has an index of billions of Web pages. Google focuses primarily on delivering the best search experience on the Web, by providing a search site and by licensing its search technology to commercial sites. Ultimately, Web sites are now allowed to freely using Google technology on their own sites, such as Google Local and Google Maps

Grey market
Sometimes called ’silver market’. Term used to define population over a certain age - usually 65.

Guerrilla marketing
The strategy of targeting small and specialised customer groups in such a way that bigger companies will not find it worthwhile to retaliate.

Green YUPPIE - a demographic grouping.

Hard sell
Sales behaviour that can be interpreted by the customer as aggressive or which places undue pressure on the customer.

House to house distribution
Delivery of goods or literature to the consumer’s front door or mailbox

The request for and delivery of a file (such as a Web page) on a server. Each element of a requested page (including graphics, multimedia, and the HTML file itself) is counted as an individual hit. So, if a Web page contains five graphics, then accessing that page will generate six hits. Hits were originally used to determine the amount of traffic a Web site received, but since businesses eventually needed to isolate the exact number of times a Web page was requested (in order to charge for ad banners), the method of counting hits was tossed aside. Instead, businesses count the actual HTML page requests. There was also a time when, in an effort to say that such-and-such Web site got more hits, programmers and designers were told to add as many elements as possible, to make the number of hits look higher. In actuality, all this trick did was slow down the download speed of the pages. "Hit," as a verb, can mean "press down," as in, "Hit any key."

In a general sense, "hosting" refers to "Web site hosting" which is the business of providing the equipment and services required to display Web sites. The business of hosting also involves maintaining files and providing fast Internet connections. If you run a Web site or do business on the Web, you have a host and you know the importance of having a good, reliable host. Hosting is very affordable nowadays; the most important factor continues to be good customer service, make sure they have it!

Hyper Text Markup Language. The programming language that defines how web pages are formatted and displayed (see also CSS). The language uses a system of codes or tags that identifies and defines the logical parts of a web page/document. Your web browser interprets these codes and displays the document accordingly.

The text or graphics on a Web site that can be clicked on with a mouse to take you to another Web page or a different area of the same Web page. Hyperlinks are usually created (or coded) in HTML. They are also used to load multimedia files, such as AVI movies and AU sound files.

Industrial marketing
The marketing of industrial products.

A product with a high market share of a new market.

Paid-for television programme purporting to be a genuine station programme. Its use is restricted to certain countries including the USA, but not the UK. Similar in practice to an advertorial.

Institutional market
A market for goods or services consisting of universities, schools, charities clubs and the like.

Internal marketing
The process of eliciting support for a company and its activities among its own employees, in order to encourage them to promote its goals. This process can happen at a number of levels, from increasing awareness of individual products or marketing campaigns, to explaining overall business strategy.

International marketing
The conduct and co-ordination of marketing activities in more than one country.

IP Address
This is a unique number which identifies a computer on the Internet. Every computer that is connected to the Internet, permanently or temporarily, is assigned an IP or Internet address. IP addresses are usually four sets of numbers separated by 3 dots e.g.

Internet Protocol Television. Technology allowing television and video signals to be received via an internet connection.

Joint Photographic Experts Group. The name of the committee that designed the photographic image-compression standard. One of the main image formats used on the Web, this is a compressed format which is optimal for full colour photographs or digital images.

Japanese YUPPIE - a demographic grouping.

Just-in-time (JIT)
An arrangement between a supplier and a customer whereby deliveries of a product are timed precisely to coincide with the need for that product. This saves unnecessary capital being tied up in stock waiting to be used

Key Success Factors (KSF)
Those factors that are a necessary condition for success in a given market. That is, a company that does poorly on one of the factors critical to success in its market is certain to fail.

The term or phrase you type in order to begin an online search. In HTML, keywords appear in the meta tags for a Web page, where they help search engines readily identify and better index the Web site.

Keyword buying
Advertisers paying for links to their websites to appear on internet search engines along side search results, sometimes as ”sponsored links”, based on keywords entered into the search engine.
See ‘Search marketing’.

Landing Page
Another name for a page on a Web site to which people are referred via links from other Web sites, especially from ad banners. For example, when a company is in the middle of an online ad campaign, it may steer users to more than one landing page in order to test the effectiveness of each ad. Usually, a company will design one landing page per banner so the follow-up content matches the sell on the particular banner ad.

Way of living, in the broadest sense, of a society or segment of that society. Includes both work and leisure, eating, drinking, dress, patterns of behaviour and allocation of income.

Link Farm
Slang for a Web page that has no meaningful content of its own, but instead is a long list of links or a long vertical display of ad banners.

A graphic, usually consisting of a symbol and/or group of letters, that identifies a company or brand.

Loss leader
A product offered at cost price or less to increase store traffic. The aim is that once the customer has purchased the loss leader product they will be tempted to buy other products priced to make a profit.

Long Term Value.

Market challenger
A firm attempting to gain market leadership through marketing efforts.
Also see ’Market follower’ and ’Market leader’.

Market development
The process of growing sales by offering existing products (or new versions of them) to new customer groups (as opposed to simply attempting to increase the company’s share of current markets).

Market entry
The launch of a new product into a new or existing market. A different strategy is required depending on whether the product is an early or late entrant to the market; the first entrant usually has an automatic advantage, while later entrants need to demonstrate that their products are better, cheaper and so on.

Market follower
A firm that is happy to follow the leaders in a market place without challenging them, perhaps taking advantages of opportunities created by leaders without the need for much marketing investment of its own.
Also see ’Market challenger’ and ’Market leader’.

Market leader
Seller of the product or service with the largest market share in its field.
Also see ’Market challenger’ and ’Market follower’.

Market penetration
The attempt to grow one’s business by obtaining a larger market share in an existing market.
See ’Market share’ and ’Market development’.

Market research
Process of making investigations into the characteristics of given markets, eg location, size, growth potential and observed attitudes.
Also see ‘Marketing research’.

Market segmentation
The division of the market place into distinct subgroups or segments, each characterised by particular tastes and requiring a specific marketing mix.
Also see ’Marketing mix’.

Market share
A company’s sales of a given product or set of products to a given set of customers, expressed as a percentage of total sales of all such products to such customers.

Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.
CIM’s official definition.

Marketing audit
Scrutiny of an organisation’s existing marketing system to ascertain its strengths and weaknesses.
Also see ‘Kotler’s six marketing audits’.

Marketing communications
All methods used by a firm to communicate with its customers and prospective customers.

Marketing metrics
Measurements that help with the quantification of marketing performance, such as market share, advertising spend, and response rates elicited by advertising and direct marketing.

Marketing mix
The combination of marketing inputs that affect customer motivation and behaviour. These inputs traditionally encompass four controllable variables ’the 4 Ps’: product, price, promotion and place. The list has subsequently been extended to 7 Ps, the additions being people, process and ’physical evidence’.

Marketing myopia
Lack of vision on the part of companies, particularly in failing to spot customers’ desires through excessive product focus. Term derives from the title of a seminal article by Theodore Levitt published in the Harvard Business Review in 1960.

Marketing plan
A written plan, usually in-depth, describing all activities involved in achieving a particular marketing objective, and their relationship to one another in both time and importance.

Marketing planning
The selection and scheduling of activities to support the company’s chosen marketing strategy or goals.
Also see ’Marketing strategy’.

Marketing Return On Investment (MROI)
See Return On Marketing Investment (ROMI).

Marketing strategy
The set of objectives which an organisation allocates to its marketing function in order to support the overall corporate strategy, together with the broad methods chosen to achieve these objectives.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Developed by A H Maslow, this is a framework of needs for understanding the development of society over time. The hierarchy can also be used to understand consumers’ needs from brands. The hierarchy is represented as a five-tiered pyramid, with physiological needs (the basic needs for survival) at the base, progressing up through safety, belongingness, esteem and, finally, self-actualisation.

Mass market
Large homogenous market for consumer products or services.

McKinsey seven S’s of management (or 7-S model)
A framework for considering business strategy with reference to seven interrelated, aspects of the organisation: Systems, Structure, Skills, Style, Staff, Strategy, and Shared values.

M-commerce (Mobile commerce)
E-commerce transactions using mobile or wireless devices.
See ‘E-commerce’.

Met Tag
An HTML tag that contains information about a Web page. Some search engines, such as AltaVista, use spiders that index Web pages based on meta tags. So, in theory, an HTML or Web page author can control how a site is indexed by search engines and how and when it will be called up during a user’s search. Within the meta tag, a keyword tag defines the primary keywords of a Web page. The meta tag can also specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to jump to after a certain amount of time (this is known as client pull). So, a Web page author can control the amount of time a Web page is up on the screen, as well as where the browser will go next

A small Web site, also sometimes referred to as a minisite, that is an off-shoot of its parent Web site. "Microsites" are typically smaller in scope and dedicated to single-issue initiatives.
Microsites can also create opportunities to engage users through questionaires, polls, and surveys that promote interest and involvement.

Geodemographic segmentation model classifying neighbourhoods into 10 lifestyle types ie: Elite Suburbs; Average Areas; Luxury Flats

Technique to quantify how consumers will respond to brands and advertising. The brain is mapped, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), to record conscious and subconscious responses to advertising, products or brands.

New Product Development (NPD)
The creation of new products, from evaluation of proposals through to launch.

Spelled as two words, it refers to RSS, a technology that allows you to see when Web sites have added new content. For example on a news Web site, you can subscribe to the news feed and get the latest headlines and video in one place, as soon as its published. On a social networking site for example, feeds highlight what’s happening in your social circles, and on Twitter for example, feeds display what your followers are posting.

Niche marketing
The marketing of a product to a small and well-defined segment of the market place.

No Income, Lots of Kids - a demographic grouping.

Offensive marketing
A competitive marketing strategy, the purpose of which is to win market share away from other players in the market.

One Income, No Kids - a demographic grouping.

One to one marketing (1:1 marketing)
Marketing that either treats each customer as an individual rather than as part of a broad segment, or that aims to establish a personal relationship with the customer.

Older People with Active Lifestyles - a demographic grouping.

One Recent Child, Heavily In Debt – a demographic grouping.

Organic growth/development
A company’s expansion by the growth of its activities and ploughing back of profits, rather than by mergers/acquisitions.
See ’Mergers/Acquisitions’.

Organic Search Results
Organic search results are the list of Web sites that "naturally" come up when a user searches specific keywords (as opposed to paid listings that search engines sell). Organic listings appear solely because a search engine has deemed it editorially important for them to be included, regardless of payment. Note: Some search engines include paid listings at the top of the organic listings even though these "sponsored links" are paid for.

Opportunities To Hear.

Opportunities To Read.

Opportunities To See.

Page Impression
The number of times a Web page is requested from a server. This is the preferred counting method for traffic measurement (instead of hits) because it only counts documents, not individual files. A single HTML page is counted as one page impression.

Page Rank
To be accurate this term is written as "PageRank" because it is trademarked by Google; however, it is commonly seen and written as "page rank." It is Google’s ranking software that calculates how relevant a Web page is to the keywords a user enters when doing an online search on This software (which operates behind the scenes) analyzes both the number of incoming links and the quality of the referring Web page. It then produces a relative measure between 0 (low) and 10 (high) which is seen as a green bar next to the search result on (above), or seen as a number in the Google Toolbar on your browser.

Page Views
The number of times a Web page is requested from a server. This is the preferred counting method for traffic measurement (instead of hits) because it only counts documents, not individual files. A single HTML page is counted as one page impression.

Paid Listings
Listings that search engines sell to online advertisers, usually through paid search, or paid inclusion programs

Politically Active and Not Seeking Employment - a demographic grouping.

Pareto principle
Also called the 80/20 rule. The principle that about 80% of the outcomes will come from about 20% of your effort.

Payment By Results (PBR)
Remuneration of an employee or service provider according to productivity or other measure of performance.

Peer to Peer (P2P) marketing
Technique of encouraging customers to promote your product to one another, particularly on the Internet. An example might be a web site that offers users a discount on products in return for recruiting new customers for the site.

Political, Economic, Environmental, Socio-cultural and Technological - a framework for viewing the macro environment.

Penetration pricing
Adoption of a lower price strategy in order to secure rapid wide penetration of a market.

Perfect competition
An open market situation where free trade prevails without restriction, where all goods of a particular nature are homogeneous and where all relevant information is known to both buyers and sellers.

Pester power
The influence children have over purchases by adults: an influence which, controversially, advertisers may seek to stimulate.

Redirecting traffic from a website, such as a bank, to a bogus website designed to mimic the original website in order to steal a user’s login details and other personal information.
See ‘Phishing’.

Sending legitimate-looking emails, often giving the impression that they are sent from a trusted source, such as a bank, asking for personal information that can be used for identity theft.
See ‘Pharming’.

Term used to define the broadcasting of multimedia files to iPods or other similar devices. Subscribers are able to view or listen to podcasts online.

Point of Sale (POS)
The location, usually within a retail outlet, where the customer decides whether to make a purchase.
Also called Point of Purchase (POP).

Automatically launched internet advertisement that appears in a small window behind another webpage.
See ‘Pop-up’.

Automatically launched internet advertisement that appears in a small window in front of another webpage.
See ‘Pop-under’.

Porter’s generic strategies
Michael E Porter set out three basic strategies for competitive advantage that a company can take:
• Cost leadership – aims to be the cheapest provider in its industry
• Differentiation – aims to set itself apart from its competitors by offering something unique which is widely valued by its buyers
• Focus – targets a narrow segment of a broader market and then either adopts a cost leadership or differentiation strategy. For a focus strategy to succeed, the target segment must have buyers with unusual needs, which sets it apart from the broader market.

Porter’s five forces
An analytic model developed by Michael E. Porter. The five forces in terms of which the model analyses businesses and industries are: Buyers, Suppliers, Substitutes, New Entrants and Rivals.

The creation of an image for a product or service in the minds of customers, both specifically to that item and in relation to competitive offerings.

Poster Audience Research - the UK Outdoor advertising industry audience measurement organisation.

Product life cycle
A model describing the progress of a product from the inception of the idea, via the main period of sales, to its eventual decline.

Product life cycle
The progress of a product from the inception of the idea, via the main period of sales, to its eventual decline. The product life cycle is sometimes divided into four stages, which are:
• Introduction
• Growth
• Maturity
• Decline

Product placement
The use of a product or service within a television or radio programme, or a film: an example would be the appearance of a leading coffee brand on a table in "Eastenders". There are strict guidelines as to the payments that can be given for such appearances.

Promotional mix
The components of an individual promotional campaign, which are likely to include advertising, personal selling, public relations, direct marketing, packaging, and sales promotion.

Promotional plan
Detailed plan describing promotional objectives and activities involved in achieving the role of promotions as laid down in the marketing plan.

Public Relations (PR)
The function or activity that aims to establish and protect the reputation of a company or brand, and to create mutual understanding between the organisation and the segments of the public with whom it needs to communicate.

Pull promotion
Pull promotion, in contrast to Push promotion, addresses the customer directly with a view to getting them to demand the product, and hence "pull" it down through the distribution chain. It focuses on advertising and above the line activities.
Also see ’Push promotion’.

Push promotion
Push promotion relies on the next link in the distribution chain - e.g. a wholesaler or retailer - to "push" out products to the customer. It revolves around sales promotions - such as price reductions and point of sale displays - and other below the line activities.
Also see ’Sales promotion’

Qualitative research
Market research that does not use numerical data but relies on interviews, ’focus groups’, ’repertory grid’, and the like, usually resulting in findings which are more detailed but also more subjective than those of ’quantitative research’.
Compare with ’Quantitative research’.

Quantitative research
Market research that concentrates on statistics and other numerical data, gathered through opinion polls, customer satisfaction surveys and so on.
Compare with ’Qualitative research’

How relevant a Web page is to the keywords a user enters when doing an online search. It refers to where a Web site or Web page is ranked within search engine results. For example, if your Web site is an Internet dictionary, when a person queries "Internet dictionaries" in a search engine, your ranking indicates where in the search results your page is listed. You will hear it used like this: "My ranking on Google is within the top 5 results!

Retired Affluent Professionals - a demographic grouping.

Relationship marketing
The strategy of establishing a relationship with the customer which continues well beyond the first purchase.

Reciprocal Link
A link placed on your Web site to return the favor of having another site link to yours. In other words, you exchange outbound links for inbound links. It is a form of bartering with the intention that each Web site receives more exposure. There are, however, some dangers associated with reciprocal linking to the degree that your site may not be ranked as popular and therefore not appear in higher up in organic search listings.

Return On Investment (ROI)
The value that an organisation derives from investing in a project.

Return On Marketing Investment (ROMI)
The value that an organisation derives from investing in marketing.
See ‘Return On Investment (ROI).

RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
Software that allows electronic content to be sent to websites or compatible devices as soon as it is updated or posted.
There is some debate as to what RSS actually stands for, Really Simple Syndication is the most commonly used term.

Sales promotion
A range of techniques used to engage the purchaser. These may include discounting, coupons, guarantees, free gifts, competitions, vouchers, demonstrations, bonus commission and sponsorship.

Sandwich board
Advertising poster carried by a person in public, usually in the form of two displays, one at the front and one at the back, suspended over the shoulder and thus “sandwiching” the carrier.

Search Engine
A Web site (actually a program) that acts as a card catalog for the Internet. Search engines attempt to index and locate desired information by searching for the keywords a user specifies. The ability to find this information depends on computer indices of Web resources (maintained in a database) that can be queried for these keywords. These indices are either built from specific resource lists (as is the case with a search directory) or created by Web programs with strange-sounding names that seem to be inspired by insects: bots, spiders, crawlers, and worms.
From a surfer’s point-of-view, search engines can be quite tiresome and not very efficient if you don’t know how to use them correctly. On top of that, different engines are good for different kinds of searches, so it’s a good idea to read the engine’s advanced search section before you do a search. In many cases, using Boolean logic will help narrow down the results for you and better optimize your search results.
Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)
The process of selecting targeted keywords that reflect the content of a Web site, placing them within the meta tag, creating a doorway page for each search engine, and testing the search engine results to make sure the site is well placed based on the keywords you selected. It is an art and a science which, because of the technology, is constantly evolving.

Search Engine marketing (SEM)
SEM refers to paying search engines to put you next to sites it thinks it is authoritative on a given topic. It is a form of paid, online advertising.

Search marketing
Promoting a company’s website using internet search engines. Either getting a company website listed in search results (unpaid) or as a listing on the same webpage as the search results (paid).

See ’Market segmentation’.

Seven P’s
See ’Marketing mix’.

Shallow linking
Hyperlinking to a website’s homepage.
See ’Deep linking’.

Share Of Voice (SOV)
The total percentage that you possess of the particular niche, market, or audience you are targeting.

Signature file
An ASCII text file, maintained within e-mail programs, that contains a few lines of text for your signature. The programs automatically attach the file to your messages so you don’t have to repeatedly type a closing. You can also add a hyperlink to your signature so that people can visit your own personal or business web site.

Single Income, No Boyfriend and Absolutely Desperate - a demographic grouping.

Single Independent and Divorced (only applies to women) - a demographic grouping.

Single Income, Two Kids Outrageous Mortgage - a demographic grouping.

A Web page included on many Web sites, its purpose is to help users navigate large, complicated sites. The sitemap usually lists text links to the content of a Web site in its entirety, on one page. For example, when you click on a nav bar link to a sitemap, you will see a hierarchical listing of the entire Web site’s content; you can then click on a link to whatever content you are interested in

Setting the original price high in the early stages of the product life cycle in an attempt to get as much profit as possible before prices are driven down by increasing competition.

SMART objectives
A simple acronym used to set objectives is called SMART objectives. SMART stands for:
1. Specific – Objectives should specify what they want to achieve.
2. Measurable – You should be able to measure whether you are meeting the objectives or not.
3. Achievable - Are the objectives you set, achievable and attainable?
4. Realistic – Can you realistically achieve the objectives with the resources you have?
5. Time – When do you want to achieve the set objectives?

SME (Small to Medium Enterprise)
Usually defined as organisations with fewer than 250 employees, with medium businesses having 50 to 249 employees and small businesses having up to 49 employees. Small businesses include micro businesses, which can be separately defined as having up to five employees.

Social Bookmarking
Social bookmarking allows consumers to share their favorite bookmarks, Web sites, or content with others by submitting links to a public or semi-public forum. On social bookmarking sites consumers can browse (and comment on) links and content submitted by others, giving greater exposure to the most frequently shared items. As publishers and portals add these features to their content and in turn, those preferences can be tied to a users profile page, it becomes one more way that users can express their interests to their peers

Social marketing
The application of marketing concepts and techniques to propagate ideas and behaviours for the social good.

Socially responsibly marketing
The concept that marketing should not harm the social environment and that it should work to benefit society in the long term.

Societal marketing
See ‘Social marketing’.

Unsolicited e-mail, often advertisements sent to a very large number of recipients.

Synonymous with a crawler, this is a program that searches the Internet and attempts to locate new, publicly accessible resources, such as WWW documents, files available in public FTP archives, and Gopher documents.
Also called wanderers or bots, spiders contribute their discoveries to a database that Internet users can search by using a search engine. Spider technology is necessary because the rate at which people are creating new Internet documents greatly exceeds any manual indexing capacity (although search directories prefer the manual approach).

Specialised form of sales promotion where a company will help fund an event or support a business venture in return for publicity.

Sequence of sketches designed to show the main elements of a television or cinema commercial.

Senior Urban Professionals - a demographic grouping.

SWOT analysis
A method of analysis which examines a company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Often used as part of the development process for a marketing plan, or to feed the results of a marketing audit back into a revised plan.

The use of ’market segmentation’ to select and address a key group of potential purchasers.

The marketing of a product or service over the telephone.

Telephone Preference Service (TPS)
A database of business and individual telecoms subscribers who have elected not to receive unsolicited direct marketing calls.

Text Link
An online ad that consists of a text-based hyperlink. Commonly seen in e-newsletters and in the footers of Web sites. For example, if you scroll down on this page, the "NetLingo Partners" section is a series of text ads.

Two Incomes, Nanny and Kids - a demographic grouping.

Trade marketing
Marketing to the retail and distributive trades.

8 to 12 year olds or 7 to 11 year olds

A company that provides a service by the same name, Twitter is a free, real-time short messaging service (SMS) that delivers messages on computers and handheld devices. The main theme of Twitter is "What are you doing?" which encourages users to post short updates (no more than 140 characters, including short URLs) as to their current activites so as to stay in touch with friends, relatives and coworkers. These updates are known as tweets

Unique Selling Preposition (USP)
The benefit that a product or service can deliver to customers that is not offered by any competitor: one of the fundamentals of effective marketing and business.
USP is sometimes referred to as Unique Selling Point or Unique Selling Proposition.

Uniform Resource Locator pronounced YU-AHR-EHL. An address for a file (or resource) on the Internet.

Viral marketing
Spreading a brand message using word of mouth (or electronically - ’word of mouse’) from a few points of dissemination. Typical techniques include using email messages, jokes, web addresses, film clips and games that get forwarded on electronically by recipients.

Virtual community
A community that exists and interacts online.

War horse
A product with a large market share of a declining market.

As a verb, a webcast is the act of using the Internet to broadcast live or delayed audio and/or video transmissions. Similar to traditional television and radio broadcasts, a webcast is a one-way recording of a taped presentation. For example, a university may offer online courses in which the instructor offers a series of webcasts, (pre-recorded or live lectures). Users must have the appropriate multimedia application in order to view the Webcast

A Webinar is a virtual meeting conducted using the Internet and phone lines. The visual portion of the meeting is viewed on the participants’ PCs and the audio portion is heard over the phone using a teleconferencing service. A Webinar can be small with only a couple of participants or large with hundreds of participants

An internet publishing device allowing an individual or company to express their thoughts and opinions. Businesses can use weblogs as a marketing communication channel.

Well Off Older Folk - a demographic grouping.

Well-Off Older People - a demographic grouping.

Word of Mouth (WoM)
The spreading of information through human interaction alone. Some campaigns have used this as key element, for example, the British Gas privatisation’s ’ask Sid’ promotion.
Also see ’Viral marketing’

Young Affluent Parents - a demographic grouping.

Young, Free and Single – a demographic grouping.

Young Urban Professional - a demographic grouping.